N. John Habraken (john@habraken.org)

The Uses of Levels

The concept of levels in the built environment denotes physical configurations hierarchically ordered that, at the same time, are domains of intervention. They are revealed by the transformations taking place in the environment.

This paper offers a brief introduction to the concept and then discusses in some detail how it can be put to practical use in environmental organization and design. To that purpose a diagrammatic representation of level hierarchies is given by means of which the implied distribution of design responsibilities and control can be shown. Examples of such distributions as they occur in real life are shown:


For a more theoretical grounding of the concept of 'level', see my book 'The Structure of the Ordinary', Part 1, Form: The Physical Order.


to home page....; to bibliography overview...to short list....to methods list....to Korean list....to comprehensive list